Your Ultimate Guide to the Statement of Purpose (SOP)

The Statement of Purpose (SOP) serves as your personal narrative to your US university’s admissions committee. Hence, crafting an effective SOP is a critical component of your application. 

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll break down what the SOP is, and delve into the intricacies of writing a compelling SOP, offering valuable insights, practical tips, and expert advice to help you stand out in the competitive US university application process.

Here at The Profs, we specialise in university admissions, including US applications. Many of our students have received offers from top American universities, like Harvard, MIT, Yale and Stanford. So, if you need help with any part of your application, including the SOP, we know exactly how to maximise your chances of success! Just reach out.

We also have previous blogs on how to get into US universities as a UK student, including articles on specific universities like NYU, UC, MIT, Harvard, Cornell, Yale and Stanford. Have a read!

Would you like help maximising your chances of being admitted to your dream university? We have experienced US admissions coaches, as well as writing tutors, who can guide you to success.


What is the statement of purpose?

The SOP is typically required as part of the US university application process. Usually, applicants respond to a prompt with a body of writing introducing who they are and selling themselves as a student. The admissions committee uses this piece of work to determine the student’s eligibility for an offer of admission. The SOP is usually considered alongside the students’ academic transcripts, standardised test scores and references. 

Applicants must usually apply to their chosen universities through the Common App. They might sometimes have the option of the Coalition App, either as well as the Common App or instead of it. However, some universities, like MIT, refrain from using either of these apps and ask applicants to apply directly through their system. You will most likely submit your SOP through the Common App or Coalition App

Whatever the medium is, there is usually a section where you type your SOP directly or copy and paste your SOP from your documents. Fleshing out your SOP before you begin writing it, as well as drafting and proofreading it multiple times is suggested, hence it is probably best to save it as a document on your computer. 

Overwhelmed by what the statement of purpose is or what to expect? Don’t worry, we can help! Just reach out.

What the statement of purpose means

The Statement of Purpose (SOP) offers a narrative perspective, presenting a comprehensive overview of who you are as an applicant and what you aim to achieve through the chosen academic programme. ​​The SOP beyond your grades and test scores, offering a personalised account that helps admissions committees assess your suitability for the programme.

Is the statement of purpose an essay?

While it might share similarities with an essay in terms of structure and content, the SOP is distinct. It’s a purposeful and concise document focused on introducing yourself as a capable person and student for your course. 

Rather than telling a story or exploring a topic broadly, it’s a targeted, persuasive statement aimed at convincing the admissions committee of your suitability.

Crafting an impactful SOP demands clarity, focus, and a strategic approach to present your qualifications and aspirations concisely.

The SOP is typically between 500 and 1,000 words.

Maximise your chances of success by getting help from our top writing tutors.

Why is the statement of purpose important?

It serves as a unique opportunity for applicants to distinguish themselves beyond grades and test scores. The SOP is your platform to have the admissions committees gain a deeper understanding of who you are, your motivations, experiences, ambitions, and how well these align with the objectives of the academic institution. 

A well-crafted SOP can set you apart from other candidates, showcasing your ability to articulate goals, highlight experiences, and demonstrate the unique perspective you bring to the academic community.

In essence, the SOP is your voice in the application process, allowing you to make a compelling case for why you are not only qualified academically but also a valuable addition to the university’s academic and professional community.

Is the personal statement and statement of purpose the same?

In short, no. You definitely should not hand in the same essay intended for UK universities to US universities.

In the UK, applicants write personal statements to demonstrate why they are a good student and the perfect match for X course. In the US, that matters too but the discussion is more broad.

The statement of purpose is supposed to be an introduction, where universities meet you, the real you. Show who you are as a person and why you deserve to be at your chosen university.

The SOP is different from a personal statement, which is very specific and academically focused. It’s far more personal.

The statement of purpose versus the personal statement

Craft a well-written and authentic SOP that showcases your personality, motivations, and aspirations. Mention your future ambitions and highlight your achievements and wins. You should especially not shy away from personal factors that are relevant to who you are and your experiences. 

All that said, it’s great if you can touch upon why you are the best candidate for your chosen subject at your desired university. Why are you suited to the overarching discipline mentioned? How would you fit in with the college, school and/or department relevant to your course of study? Why would the programme benefit by bringing you in?

Don’t tell your university about your passion, demonstrate it. Highlight any research, projects or clubs that you participated in – especially if they’re relevant to your degree. And it’s even better if you have any closely related achievements or awards. Use the SOP as an opportunity to demonstrate your intellectual curiosity, wider reading and critical thinking skills. 

Your university wants to know if you would be a good classmate, roommate and member of their institution and what you offer them. Use this opportunity to demonstrate your intellectual curiosity and how you can contribute to the community.

Always check your university’s ethos and mission statement. What qualities does your university value and how do you align with them? For example, NYU appreciates talent, drive and ambition, so it’s great if NYU candidates can demonstrate their goals, skills and work ethic. Stanford also values commitment, dedication, genuine interest, enthusiasm and curiosity. Stanford seeks intellectually curious students who are passionate about learning and exploring new ideas. On the other hand, Cornell values characteristics like honesty and empathy, so try to demonstrate these in your statement. So, be sure to express qualities relevant to your chosen universities in your writing.

Whatever you do, don’t underestimate the importance of this step! Your statement of purpose is key to getting an offer and can hold more weight than your GPA for some universities. 

You can check out our previous article on personal statements which can offer some helpful tips for this step, however, as the goals and guidelines of the SOP are different, we recommend chatting with our US admissions team. We can match you with expert coaches who specialise in top-tier US university admissions. We also have expert writing tutors who can help you prepare the kind of polished work that admissions committees are seeking.

Please note: Some universities have their own specific questions instead of the SOP, or as well as the SOP. So, it’s crucial that you always check university guidelines via their official websites. Whilst the questions are usually still similar to the SOP, there are some anomalies e.g. Cornell specifically states that it expects students to know their chosen course, faculty, and facilities at the schools they wish to attend. It’s especially great if Cornell applicants can name modules and/or explain how their degree will help them meet their career goals. Hence, applicants must demonstrate why they are the best candidates for their chosen subject at Cornell. They need to do their research, get specific and show off their wider reading. This is more similar to the UK’s personal statements. 

So, what if you’re asked questions alongside or instead of the SOP?

US universities typically ask for mini-essay answers to a set of questions alongside the SOP. Sometimes these are even instead of the SOP. These are intended to encourage more specific and focused bodies of work. 

Craft well-written and authentic answers to the university’s questions that showcase your personality, motivations, and aspirations. Try to mention your future ambitions and highlight your achievements and wins. You should especially not shy away from personal factors that are relevant to who you are and your experiences.

Just remember to stay on the topic of the question. Yes, it’s great to bring up all the factors that “sell” your application, but these points should always be aiding you in answering the question on hand. You want to sound focused and concise to convey that you are competent and articulate. For example, Yale reminds applicants that they can’t fit their whole life story into a few answers, so they should try to remain succinct

All this said, if you are asked to deliver written answers to questions as opposed to writing a SOP, you can still apply most of the SOP tips. This is because US university applications are more personal than in the UK. For example, MIT claims to have students who take care of each other and lift each other up. Hence, they want to admit new students who will maintain this ethos; they want to see that you’re an empathetic and supportive person. So, don’t underestimate the personal side of the questions. Showing that you’re a kind and friendly person could boost your MIT application.

Get help nailing the supplemental questions and making a lasting impression on your chosen universities by gaining expert guidance from our US admissions team.

Written quality: 

Your SOP and/or written answers can shape the strength of your application. So, it’s important that you can express yourself clearly and articulately. 

Fluency, grammar, syntax and spelling are all important. Character and storytelling ability are also important. UK written applications tend to be more straightforward. There’s less descriptive language, humour and metaphors. Instead, UK applications are very direct. Hence, US applications are generally more literary than in the UK. 

For a lot of universities, your writing quality is more important than what you’re talking about. For example, Yale claims that your quality of communication, writing, and storytelling ability is far more important than your choice of topic. Yale claims to have read incredible essays on common topics and weak essays on unique ones. Hence, Yale prioritises your outlook and perception rather than your topic itself.

On this same note, all admitted MIT undergraduates must fulfil a communication requirement that integrates the teaching and practice of writing and speaking into all four academic years and into all areas of the MIT curriculum. Similarly, NYU’s core college curriculum for all freshmen includes a module on expository writing. So, it’s important to demonstrate your aptitude in writing and communication in your application as your writing skills will be closely looked at.

Worried about your writing skills, or fretting over what to say? We know how to help! Here, at The Profs, we have excellent writing tutors with plenty of experience who can help you craft a compelling body of work. If you need any assistance, just reach out.

What US universities ask for a SOP, and how do they differ?

Check out the table below which details some top US universities, whether they accept the SOP and what further written questions they require. Some of the universities are linked to our previous blogs which break down how to nail their unique application process!

UniversityDo they accept the SOP?Do they require further written questions? 
NYUYesYes, New York University has a 250-word supplementary writing task. You can view the previous prompt, as well as read more information about the supplementary essay task, here.
UCNoYes, UC asks students to answer 4 of 8 personal insight questions. Each answer should not exceed 350 words. Visit this page for more information on UC’s short answer essay questions.
MITNoYes, MIT asks its students to answer multiple short answer essay questions with 100-200 word responses. There will also be a final, open-ended, additional-information text box where you can tell MIT anything else you think they should know about you. MIT published its previous student essay titles for 2023/24 on this page.
HarvardYesYes, Harvard asks for a supplemental essay which you can read about here. Harvard also published a few of its successful statements of purpose on their website here.
CornellYesYes, Cornell asks for ‘college-and school-specific essay questions’. This part is closer aligned with the UK’s personal statement. Cornell provides more information about their writing tasks here.
YaleYesYes, Yale asks applicants to answer numerous short-answer essay questions. Multiple require answers ranging from 35-200, and the final task is a 400-word response to a prompt of your choosing. Yale published its previous student essay questions on this page. 
StanfordYesYes, Stanford has multiple short questions with 50-word limit answers. There are also three questions with a word limit of 100-250 for each essay response. Visit this page for more information on Stanford’s short answer essay questions.
PrincetonYesYes, Princeton has multiple Princeton-specific questions for applicants to answer. Guidelines can be found here.
California Institute of TechnologyYesYes, Caltech has multiple supplemental essay questions. Information on this is available here.
University of Pennsylvania YesYes, UPenn has short answer and essay prompts which you can read up on here
John Hopkins UniversityYesYes, JHU asks for a supplemental essay based on a prompt. See here.
Brown YesYes, Brown also requires ‘Brown University Specific Questions’ which you can read up on here.
ColumbiaYesYes, Columbia requires Columbia-specific Application Questions. Information on this is available here
BostonYesYes, Boston asks supplemental questions. Check out their guide on this.
University of ChicagoYesYes, UChicago asks supplemental essay questions. You can read up on this here.
NorthwesternNoYes, Northwestern requires supplemental essays. Information on this is available here.

Important note: Please note that universities that do not require the SOP will still accept the SOP if you apply through the Common App or Coalition App. The Common App and Coalition App automatically include a section for the SOP, so if you are applying to a university through one of these apps you will be given the opportunity to include a standard SOP that goes to all your chosen universities. Some universities might mark the SOP section as mandatory, however, some might mark it as optional because they may have their own university-specific essay questions that deem the SOP redundant. If you apply through another accepted medium to the Common App or Coalition App to a university that does not require the SOP, then you will not be asked for the SOP at all. 

Also, note that prompts on the Common App and Coalition App are similar but not the same. Hence, it’s worth checking out the prompts for the year of your application via each app and deciding what suits you best.

How to write the SOP: What the statement of purpose should include

The SOP should include:

  • Your personal story. Who are you? How are you different from your peers? What story do you have that’s shaped your unique perspective, or you as a student, or your love for a specific discipline? Introduce yourself in your unique voice and make an impression. Also, include what kind of student you’d be and how you’d fit into your community at your chosen university!
  • Your academic aptitude. Demonstrate that you have a great academic record. Highlight your impressive scores, qualifications, achievements and academic awards or accomplishments. 
  • Your work experience and/or extracurriculars. Talk about your experiences and what they’ve taught you. Highlight how hard you’ve worked in your passions outside of the classroom. Have you excelled in competitions or level of ability within a certain hobby? 

Polish and proofread thoroughly: 

Crafting a mistake-free, compelling narrative takes iterations. Employ outlines and have multiple reviewers provide critical feedback. E.g. Yale stresses the importance of proofreading and turning in work without errors. But have no fear if you’re worried about your writing skills, or fretting over what to say. We know how to help! Here, at The Profs, we have excellent writing tutors with plenty of experience who can help you craft a compelling body of work. If you need any assistance, just reach out.

Extracurriculars: What do you write in a statement of purpose?

Do not underestimate extracurricular activities. Many US universities specifically highlight an interest in extracurriculars. 

Participate actively in extracurricular activities that align with your discipline or demonstrate relevant skills and showcase your leadership, teamwork, and passion. Generally, US universities value students who are collaborative and cooperative, so any activity that demonstrates these qualities should be mentioned. 

Consider pursuing internships, volunteering, or joining clubs and organisations related to your intended field of study. It’s also a good idea to get work experience that’s related to your interests. 

Whilst it’s ideal for your extracurriculars and work experience to be as relevant to your discipline as possible, it’s still valuable if it’s not. Unlike UK universities, US universities tend to value seemingly irrelevant activities and student jobs because US applications are more personal and focused on applicants’ individual characters and experiences. 

On this note, if you meet a certain standard in a sport that your university offers, you could reach out to the department that manages that team and get a leg up in your application process. 

Where relevant, don’t be afraid to talk about things you genuinely enjoy that relax you. Many US universities want to admit students who implement work-life balance and know how to recharge.

Usually, US universities are more interested in the activities that mean something to you and they are less concerned with what those activities are. They want to see your heart and understand what guides your intensity, curiosity and excitement! So, go by quality over quantity. 

We recommend chatting with our US admissions team. We can match you with expert coaches who specialise in top-tier US university admissions. We also have expert writing tutors who can help you prepare the kind of polished work that admissions committees are seeking.

What are the 7 steps of the statement of purpose?

  • Target the right goals: Research which programmes best fit your interests and qualifications. Tailor your SOP to showcase how you match specific department needs.
  • Customise for committees: Demonstrate a passion for the particular university by highlighting relevant faculty research and campus resources. Connect insightfully on a personal level.
  • Show don’t tell your motivations: Bring your motivations to life with purposeful anecdotes evidencing drive and suitability for advanced studies. Stories are more memorable than generic statements.
  • Cite meaningful experiences: Choose short illustrative examples from academic, professional and extracurricular history underscoring why you’re prepared to succeed.
  • Verify goals’ feasibility: Connect motivations persuasively to future career aspirations. Depict tangible steps for achieving outcomes through the programme.
  • Employ impactful language: Strategically integrate powerful verbs, descriptive adjectives and statistics maintaining a consistently formal tone.
  • Maintain appropriate length: Strict formatting guidelines vary by university – check online. Under or exceeding length suggests a lack of structure or focus. The experts at offer top-tier SOP consulting to help you impress every admissions committee. Inquire now for guaranteed results!

Get help nailing your SOP and making a lasting impression on your chosen universities by gaining expert guidance from our US admissions team.

What not to say in a statement of purpose

  • Irrelevant personal details: Don’t disclose personal health issues or financial hardships. Keep it focused on your qualifications and ambitions.
  • Unconvincing motivations: Avoid motivations like “I think it will be fun” or vague statements without deeper reflection on fit.
  • Overly ambitious plans: Don’t depict unrealistic goals like becoming the manager or CEO at a company right after your programme. Keep it pragmatic and tied to research/skills gained.
  • Complaints about other schools: Ranting about why you disliked other programmes reflects poorly. Stay upbeat and solution-focused on the target university.
  • Poorly researched programmes: Familiarise yourself with specifics so your motivations are tailored and not generic. A lack of research is a red flag.
  • False information or plagiarism: Do not copy text from anything you find online. Remember, factual errors and mistakes undermine credibility no matter how compelling the content. Factcheck yourself meticulously!

Don’t make a mistake and don’t miss a beat. Chat with us for expert advice!

Can I write my statement of purpose using ChatGPT? 

It is not recommended that you use ChatGPT to write your statement of purpose. It’s considered plagiarism to use a statement that ChatGPT wrote for you. Also, ChatGPT pulls its information from the internet, and as not everything on the internet is accurate, your SOP could wind up with a lot of misinformation. Ultimately, your SOP needs to be in your voice and inherently personal to you and your story, which AI cannot do for you. You don’t want to sound robotic or dispassionate. Moreover, many admissions committees are being trained to identify AI-generated content. So, using ChatGPT to write your SOP could result in you handing in a weak SOP which ruins your chances of getting an offer, or worse, you could be disqualified for plagiarism. 

All that said, you could put your already written SOP through ChatGPT to check it for grammar, syntax and spelling errors. You could also ask ChatGPT for ideas and help with phrasing, and hence, only use it for proofreading or brainstorming.

A lot of universities now offer pages or blogs on the use of AI and ChatGPT so you can find guidance and rules specific to your university there.

When is the statement of purpose deadline?

Typically, the early action deadline is in early November and the regular decision deadline is in nearly January.

However, it’s important to note that some universities don’t offer multiple deadlines. Similarly, your SOP deadline will depend on your chosen universities and the medium in which you must apply e.g. Common App, Coalition App or directly through the university website. 

It’s super important that you check your SOP deadline based on your specific year of application, what medium you’re applying through, and what universities you’re applying for.

Get help writing your academic statement of purpose

Here at The Profs, over 95% of our students get into their first and second-choice universities. When it comes to university admissions, we are experts. 

We have the know-how to get you into top US universities, from Ivy Leagues like Harvard to top public universities like UC, Berkeley. Lots of our staff have graduated from world-leading universities so we can let you in on exactly what these universities look for in their applicants. We have experienced US admissions coaches, as well as writing tutors.

So, chat with our US admissions team to connect with a friendly expert who can guide you through submitting the perfect application. Don’t gamble with your future, maximise your chances of success!


What is the statement of intent?

The SOP is sometimes referred to as a statement of intent. A good statement of intent outlines your academic ambitions and suitability for a course. Crafting a compelling statement is crucial to gaining acceptance into competitive degrees. We have experienced US admissions coaches, as well as writing tutors who can help you nail this step.

How do I write an SOP UK?

The SOP is the personal essay used for US admissions. In the UK, a personal statement is required. Check out our previous article on how to write a personal statement. Crafted carefully to highlight relevant experiences and why you match the course criteria, it distinguishes your application from others.

How do I write a personal statement?

A personal statement is a short essay required by UK universities that shares your interests and experiences to convince the committee of your potential. Demonstrate passion, strengths and perseverance through meaningful anecdotes that reveal your suitability. Check out our previous article on how to write a personal statement. 

Do you put your name on a statement of purpose?

Usually, your statement of purpose is submitted through your Common App or Coalition App, hence it is part of your application profile and you need not include your name. However, you should always check individual programme guidelines.

How do you write a good statement of purpose for Masters?

A statement of purpose for a master’s degree must showcase advanced knowledge of the field and focused aspirations aligned with available resources and faculty research. Cite qualifications clearly while addressing “fit” persuasively for top consideration.

What is the difference between a statement of purpose and a cover letter?

While a cover letter focuses on motivation for a particular job role, a statement of purpose elaborates on interests in a degree subject and future goals. The latter articulates specifically why you want to join an academic programme rather than just the workforce.

How to write a statement of purpose for graduate entry?

For graduate entry into competitive courses, draft a well-structured, engaging statement explaining career disruptions or gaps, reflection on qualifications, and rekindled aspirations through available resources to receive full emphasis in admissions rounds.

How do I write a statement of purpose for PhD?

A statement of purpose for PhD study expands on proposed contributions through original research. Discuss compelling questions in the subject, qualifications addressing them through available resources at the target university, and the long-term impacts of the projected work.

How do I write a statement of purpose in research?

A research-focused SOP outlines a dissertation project, highlighting background qualifications and framing how the work would advance discourses through specific departments’ areas of expertise. Empirical reasoning and clear methodology impress committees reviewing programs worldwide.